Essential Biochemistry
3rd Edition

Essential Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt
Kathleen Cornely

© 2013

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Topics covered

1 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE

  1. What is Biochemistry?
  2. Biological Molecules
  3. Energy and Metabolism
  4. The Origin and Evolution of Life

2 AQUEOUS CHEMISTRY

  1. Water Molecules form Hydrogen Bonds
  2. The Hydrophobic Effect
  3. Acid–Base Chemistry
  4. Tools and Techniques: Buffers

PART TWO MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

3 FROM GENES TO PROTEINS

  1. DNA is the Genetic Material
  2. Genes Encode Proteins
  3. Genomics
  4. Tools and Techniques: Manipulating DNA

4 PROTEIN STRUCTURE

  1. Proteins Are Chains of Amino Acids
  2. Secondary Structure: The Conformation of the Peptide Group
  3. Tertiary Structure and Protein Stability
  4. Quaternary Structure
  5. Tools and Techniques: Analysing Protein Structure

5 PROTEIN FUNCTION

  1. Myoglobin and Hemoglobin: Oxygen-Binding Proteins
  2. Structural Proteins
  3. Motor Proteins

6 HOW ENZYMES WORK

  1. What Is an Enzyme?
  2. The Chemistry of Catalysis
  3. The Unique Properties of Enzyme Catalysts 
  4. Some Additional Features of Enzymes

7 ENZYME KINETICS AND INHIBITION

  1. Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics
  2. Derivation and Meaning of the Michaelis–Menten Equation
  3. Enzyme Inhibition

8 LIPIDS AND MEMBRANES

  1. Lipids
  2. The Lipid Bilayer
  3. Membrane Proteins
  4. The Fluid Mosaic Model

9 MEMBRANE TRANSPORT

  1. The Thermodynamics of Membrane Transport
  2. Passive Transport
  3. Active Transport
  4. Membrane Fusion

10 SIGNALING

  1. General Features of Signaling Pathways
  2. G Protein Signaling Pathways
  3. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  4. Lipid Hormone Signaling

11 CARBOHYDRATES

  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Polysaccharides
  3. Glycoproteins

PART THREE METABOLISM

12 METABOLISM AND BIOENERGETICS

  1. Food and Fuel
  2. Metabolic Pathways
  3. Free Energy Changes in Metabolic Reactions

13 GLUCOSE METABOLISM

  1. Glycolysis
  2. Gluconeogenesis
  3. Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation
  4. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway

14 THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE

  1. The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction
  2. The Eight Reactions of the Citric Acid Cycle 
  3. Anabolic and Catabolic Functions of the Citric Acid Cycle

15 OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

  1. The Thermodynamics of Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
  2. Mitochondrial Electron Transport
  3. Chemiosmosis
  4. ATP Synthase

16 PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  1. Chloroplasts and Solar Energy
  2. The Light Reactions
  3. Carbon Fixation

17 LIPID METABOLISM

  1. Fatty Acid Oxidation
  2. Fatty Acid Synthesis
  3. Synthesis of Other Lipids

18 NITROGEN METABOLISM

  1. Nitrogen Fixation and Assimilation
  2. Amino Acid Biosynthesis
  3. Nucleotide Biosynthesis
  4. Amino Acid Catabolism
  5. Nitrogen Disposal: The Urea Cycle

19 REGULATION OF MAMMALIAN FUEL METABOLISM

  1. Integration of Fuel Metabolism
  2. Hormonal Control of Fuel Metabolism
  3. Disorders of Fuel Metabolism

PART FOUR GENETIC INFORMATION

20 DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR

  1. DNA Supercoiling
  2. The DNA Replication Machinery
  3. Telomeres
  4. DNA Damage and Repair
  5. DNA Packaging

21 TRANSCRIPTION AND RNA

  1. Transcription Initiation
  2. RNA Polymerase
  3. RNA Processing

22 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  1. tRNA Aminoacylation
  2. Ribosome Structure
  3. Translation
  4. Post-translational Events

GLOSSARY

SOLUTIONS

ANSWERS TO PRACTICE PROBLEMS PP-1

ANSWERS TO CLINICAL CONNECTION

QUESTIONS CC-1

INDEX I-1