Materials Science and Engineering
9th Edition, SI Version

Materials Science and Engineering
William D Callister
David G. Rethwisch

© 2014

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Topics covered

LIST OF SYMBOLS xxi

1. Introduction 
Learning Objectives 
1.1 Historical Perspective 
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 
1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 
Case Study—Liberty Ship Failures 
1.4 Classification of Materials 
Case Study—Carbonated Beverage Containers 
1.5 Advanced Materials 
1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 
1.7 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Correlations 
Summary 
References 
Questions

2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding
Learning Objectives 
2.1 Introduction 
ATOMIC STRUCTURE 
2.2 Fundamental Concepts 
2.3 Electrons in Atoms 
2.4 The Periodic Table
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 
2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 
2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 
2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding
Materials of Importance—Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon Freezing) 
2.8 Mixed Bonding 
2.9 Molecules 
2.10 Bonding Type-Materials Classification Correlations 
Summary
Equation Summary 
List of Symbols 
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 
Important Terms and Concepts 
References 
Questions and Problems 
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids 
Learning Objectives
3.1 Introduction
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
3.2 Fundamental Concepts
3.3 Unit Cells
3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures
3.5 Density Computations
3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy
Materials of Importance—Tin (Its Allotropic Transformation)
3.7 Crystal Systems
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES
3.8 Point Coordinates
3.9 Crystallographic Directions
3.10 Crystallographic Planes
3.11 Linear and Planar Densities
3.12 Close-Packed Crystal Structures
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS
3.13 Single Crystals
3.14 Polycrystalline Materials
3.15 Anisotropy
3.16 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures
3.17 Noncrystalline Solids
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

4. Imperfections in Solids 
Learning Objectives
4.1 Introduction
POINT DEFECTS
4.2 Vacancies and Self-Interstitials
4.3 Impurities in Solids
4.4 Specification of Composition
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS
4.5 Dislocations—Linear Defects
4.6 Interfacial Defects
Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and Surface Defects)
4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects
4.8 Atomic Vibrations
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION
4.9 Basic Concepts of Microscopy
4.10 Microscopic Techniques
4.11 Grain-Size Determination
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

5. Diffusion
Learning Objectives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms
5.3 Fick’s First Law
5.4 Fick’s Second Law—Nonsteady-State Diffusion
5.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion
5.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials
Material of Importance—Aluminum for Integrated Circuit Interconnects
5.7 Other Diffusion Paths
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

6. Mechanical Properties of Metals 
Learning Objectives
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain
ELASTIC DEFORMATION
6.3 Stress–Strain Behavior
6.4 Anelasticity
6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials
PLASTIC DEFORMATION
6.6 Tensile Properties
6.7 True Stress and Strain
6.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation
6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation
6.10 Hardness
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS
6.11 Variability of Material Properties
6.12 Design/Safety Factors
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

7. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms 
Learning Objectives
7.1 Introduction
DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION
7.2 Basic Concepts
7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations
7.4 Slip Systems
7.5 Slip in Single Crystals
7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials
7.7 Deformation by Twinning
MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS
7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction
7.9 Solid-Solution Strengthening
7.10 Strain Hardening
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLISATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH
7.11 Recovery
7.12 Recrystallisation
7.13 Grain Growth
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

8. Failure
Learning Objectives
8.1 Introduction
FRACTURE
8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture
8.3 Ductile Fracture
8.4 Brittle Fracture
8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics
8.6 Fracture Toughness Testing
FATIGUE
8.7 Cyclic Stresses
8.8 The S–N Curve
8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation
8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life
8.11 Environmental Effects
CREEP
8.12 Generalised Creep Behavior
8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects
8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods
8.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Use
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

9. Phase Diagrams 
Learning Objectives
9.1 Introduction
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS
9.2 Solubility Limit
9.3 Phases
9.4 Microstructure
9.5 Phase Equilibria
9.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams
BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS
9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems
9.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams
9.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys
9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys
9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems
9.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys
Materials of Importance—Lead-Free Solders
9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds
9.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions
9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations
9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase Diagrams
9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM
9.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase Diagram
9.19 Development of Microstructure in Iron–Carbon Alloys
9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems
Learning Objectives

10. Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties
10.1 Introduction
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
10.2 Basic Concepts
10.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations
10.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS
10.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams
10.6 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagrams
10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon Alloys
10.8 Tempered Martensite
10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon Alloys 
Materials of Importance—Shape-Memory Alloys
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

11. Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys 
Learning Objectives
11.1 Introduction
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS
11.2 Ferrous Alloys
11.3 Nonferrous Alloys
Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys Used for Euro Coins
FABRICATION OF METALS
11.4 Forming Operations
11.5 Casting
11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS
11.7 Annealing Processes
11.8 Heat Treatment of Steels
11.9 Precipitation Hardening
Summary
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

12. Structures and Properties of Ceramics 
Learning Objectives
12.1 Introduction
CERAMIC STRUCTURES
12.2 Crystal Structures
12.3 Silicate Ceramics
12.4 Carbon
12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics
12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials
12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics
12.9 Stress–Strain Behavior
12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation
12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical
Considerations
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

13. Applications and Processing of Ceramics
Learning Objectives
13.1 Introduction
TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS
13.2 Glasses
13.3 Glass–Ceramics
13.4 Clay Products
13.5 Refractories
13.6 Abrasives
13.7 Cements
13.8 Carbons
13.9 Advanced Ceramics
FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS
13.10 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass–Ceramics
13.11 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products
13.12 Powder Pressing
13.13 Tape Casting
Summary
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problem
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

14. Polymer Structures
Learning Objectives
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules
14.3 Polymer Molecules
14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules
14.5 Molecular Weight
14.6 Molecular Shape
14.7 Molecular Structure
14.8 Molecular Configurations
14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers
14.10 Copolymers
14.11 Polymer Crystallinity
14.12 Polymer Crystals
14.13 Defects in Polymers
14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

15. Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers 
Learning Objectives
15.1 Introduction
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS
15.2 Stress–Strain Behavior
15.3 Macroscopic Deformation
15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation
15.5 Fracture of Polymers
15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical Characteristics
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS
15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers
15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers
Materials of Importance—Shrink-Wrap Polymer Films
15.9 Deformation of Elastomers
CRYSTALLISATION, MELTING, AND GLASSTRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS
15.10 Crystallisation
15.11 Melting
15.12 The Glass Transition
15.13 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures
15.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures
POLYMER TYPES
15.15 Plastics
Materials of Importance—Phenolic Billiard Balls
15.16 Elastomers
15.17 Fibers
15.18 Miscellaneous Applications
15.19 Advanced Polymeric Materials
POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING
15.20 Polymerisation
15.21 Polymer Additives
15.22 Forming Techniques for Plastics
15.23 Fabrication of Elastomers
15.24 Fabrication of Fibers and Films
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Questions
Fundamentals of Engineering Question

16. Composites 
Learning Objectives
16.1 Introduction
PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
16.2 Large-Particle Composites
16.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
16.4 Influence of Fiber Length
16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration
16.6 The Fiber Phase
16.7 The Matrix Phase
16.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites
16.9 Metal-Matrix Composites
16.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites
16.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites
16.12 Hybrid Composites
16.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES
16.14 Laminar Composites
16.15 Sandwich Panels
Case Study—Use of Composites in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner
16.16 Nanocomposites
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

17. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 
Learning Objectives
17.1 Introduction
CORROSION OF METALS
17.2 Electrochemical Considerations
17.3 Corrosion Rates
17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates
17.5 Passivity
17.6 Environmental Effects
17.7 Forms of Corrosion
17.8 Corrosion Environments
17.9 Corrosion Prevention
17.10 Oxidation
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS
17.11 Swelling and Dissolution
17.12 Bond Rupture
17.13 Weathering
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

18. Electrical Properties 
Learning Objectives
18.1 Introduction
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION
18.2 Ohm’s Law
18.3 Electrical Conductivity
18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction
18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids
18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models
18.7 Electron Mobility
18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals
18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys
Materials of Importance—Aluminum Electrical Wires
SEMICONDUCTIVITY
18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction
18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction
18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration
18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility
18.14 The Hall Effect
18.15 Semiconductor Devices
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS
18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials
18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR
18.18 Capacitance
18.19 Field Vectors and Polarisation
18.20 Types of Polarisation
18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant
18.22 Dielectric Strength
18.23 Dielectric Materials
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS
18.24 Ferroelectricity
18.25 Piezoelectricity
Materials of Importance—Piezoelectric Ceramic Ink-Jet Printer Heads
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

19. Thermal Properties 
Learning Objectives
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Heat Capacity
19.3 Thermal Expansion
Materials of Importance—Invar and Other Low-Expansion Alloys
19.4 Thermal Conductivity
19.5 Thermal Stresses
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

20. Magnetic Properties 
Learning Objectives
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Basic Concepts
20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
20.4 Ferromagnetism
20.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 
20.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior
20.7 Domains and Hysteresis
20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy
20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials
Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon Alloy Used in Transformer Cores
20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials
20.11 Magnetic Storage
20.12 Superconductivity
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 

21. Optical Properties 
Learning Objectives
21.1 Introduction
BASIC CONCEPTS
21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation
21.3 Light Interactions with Solids
21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS
21.5 Refraction
21.6 Reflection
21.7 Absorption
21.8 Transmission
21.9 Color
21.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators 
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA
21.11 Luminescence
21.12 Photoconductivity
Materials of Importance—Light-Emitting Diodes
21.13 Lasers
21.14 Optical Fibers in Communications
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problem
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems

22. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 
Learning Objectives
22.1 Introduction
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
22.2 Component Design
22.3 Materials
22.4 Manufacturing Techniques
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS
22.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering
Materials of Importance—Biodegradable and Biorenewable Polymers/Plastics
Summary
References
Design Questions

Appendices
Appendix A The International System of Units (SI)
Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering Materials
B.1 Density
B.2 Modulus of Elasticity
B.3 Poisson’s Ratio
B.4 Strength and Ductility
B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness
B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
B.7 Thermal Conductivity
B.8 Specific Heat
B.9 Electrical Resistivity
B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions
Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials
Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials

Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Index